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Rayna Stamboliyska

Sectarian Violence Sweeps Over Egypt

[9 October 2011, the arabic reads:

On Wednesday 14 August, police forces brutally cleared out two Cairene sit-ins supporting ousted President Mohamed Morsi, which resulted in well over six hundred deaths. Violence swept over the whole country at a brisk pace, and scores of churches came under attack nationwide. Churches, bible societies, Christian schools, homes, and businesses were damaged and burnt down in unprecedented wide-scale attacks led by what were described as Muslim Brotherhood (MB) members, ...

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Jordan Starts Blocking "Unlicensed Websites"

[Image posted on the homepages of some banned websites in Jordan. From Al-Bawaba]

The Commission directs you to do what is required to block the websites listed in the attached document and prevent your subscribers from accessing them before the end of today, 2 June 2013. Note that the websites that don’t have a URL in the list, you will be provided with later.   What followed was a list of 304 websites.   This is the request sent by the Jordanian Telecommunications Regulatory Commission to Internet Service Providers (ISPs) on 2 June 2013, ...

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Egypt’s Constitutional Referendum Results

[Constitutional referendum first stage results. Diagram designed by author]

Based on numbers reported by Egyptian media outlets, below is a summary of the constitutional referendum vote results broken down by governorate. What do these numbers tell us? In two stages of voting, average turnout across governorates was 30%, with Egyptians abroad participation being the most notable outlier with a 41% turnout rate. The only three governorates where the majority of voters elected to reject the draft constitution are Cairo, Gharbiyya, and ...

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Rayna Stamboliyska


Rayna Stamboliyska is a research fellow at the Paris Descartes University, Paris, France. She is also a freelance writer with a particular interest in health issues and freedom of speech in the Middle East, with a focus in freedom of expression online. She tweets under @MaliciaRogue.