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Nadeem Shehadeh

The Legal Framework of Second Class Citizenship

[Poverty in Jaffa. Image from RW/BADIL.]

Since its establishment in 1948, Israel has lacked a formal constitution. In 1951, the first Knesset decided that it would enact a series of “Basic Laws” that would eventually become the future Israeli constitution.  Nothing in the Basic Laws resembled a bill of rights until the Knesset enacted two very important laws: Basic Law - Human Dignity and Liberty, passed in 1992, and Basic Law - Freedom of Occupation, passed in 1994, were the basis of the so-called ...

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Nadeem Shehadeh


Nadeem Shehadeh (LLM) is an attorney with the Civil and Political Rights Unit at Adalah - The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel.