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Dina Makram-Ebeid

“Old People Are Not Revolutionaries!” Labor Struggles Between Precarity and Istiqrar in a Factory Occupation in Egypt

[Front page of Al-Ahram: “The state will not let go of the public sector: Mihlib approves a plan to revive the iron and steel industry and repay workers their dues” with a photo of Mihlibat EISCO. (Photo: Dina Makram-Ebeid)]

On 11 February, 2011, I stood in Tahrir Square surrounded by millions celebrating the toppling of Mubarak following eighteen solid days of battle. Around me were people from all walks of life: Saʿidis (Upper Egyptians) who came all the way from the south, street children turned rebels, family members of martyrs who were killed during the eighteen days, enthusiasts from the elite, leftist feminist women, members from the Muslim Brotherhood—you name it. In between the shoving ...

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Dina Makram-Ebeid


Dina Makram-Ebeid is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle, Germany. She writes on work, labor, and social movements with particular interest in Egypt, where she conducted long-term fieldwork. She is active on issues related to social justice in Egypt.