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The Workers, Middle Class, Military Junta, and the Permanent Revolution

[Image from unknown archive] [Image from unknown archive]

Since yesterday, and actually earlier, middle class activists have been urging Egyptians to suspend the protests and return to work, in the name of patriotism, singing some of the most ridiculous lullabies about "let's build new Egypt," "Le'ts work harder than even before," ect . . . In case you didn't know, actually Egyptians are among the hardest working people around the globe already.

Those activists want us to trust Mubarak’s generals with the transition to democracy–the same junta that has provided the backbone of his dictatorship over the past 30 years. And while I believe the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, who receive $1.3 billion annually from the US, will eventually engineer the transition to a “civilian” government, I have no doubt it will be a government that will guarantee the continuation of a system that will never touch the army’s privileges, keep the armed forces as the institution that will have the final say in politics (like for example Turkey), guarantee Egypt will continue to follow the US foreign policy whether it’s the undesired peace with Apartheid State of Israel, safe passage for the US navy in the Suez Canal, the continuation of the Gaza siege and exports of natural gas to Israel at subsidized rates. The “civilian” government is not about cabinet members who do not wear military uniforms. A civilian government means a government that fully represents the Egyptian people’s demands and desires without any intervention from the brass. And I see this hard to be accomplished or allowed by the junta.

The military has been the ruling institution in this country since 1952. Its leaders are part of the establishment. And while the young officers and soldiers are our allies, we cannot for one second lend our trust and confidence to the generals. Moreover, those army leaders need to be investigated. I want to know more about their involvement in the business sector.

All classes in Egypt took part in the uprising. In Tahrir Square you found sons and daughters of the Egyptian elite, together with the workers, middle class citizens, and the urban poor. Mubarak has managed to alienate all social classes in society including wide section of the bourgeoisie. But remember that it’s only when the mass strikes started three days ago that’s when the regime started crumbling and the army had to force Mubarak to resign because the system was about to collapse.

Some have been surprised that the workers started striking. I really don’t know what to say. This is completely idiotic. The workers have been staging the longest and most sustained strike wave in Egypt’s history since 1946, triggered by the Mahalla strike in December 2006. It’s not the workers’ fault that you were not paying attention to their news. Every single day over the past three years there was a strike in some factory whether it’s in Cairo or the provinces. These strikes were not just economic, they were also political in nature.

From day 1 of our uprising, the working class has been taking part in the protests. Who do you think were the protesters in Mahalla, Suez and Kafr el-Dawwar for example? However, the workers were taking part as “demonstrators” and not necessarily as “workers”– meaning, they were not moving independently. The govt had brought the economy to halt, not the protesters by its curfew, shutting down of banks and business. It was a capitalist strike, aiming at terrorizing the Egyptian people. Only when the govt tried to bring the country back to “normal” on Sunday that workers returned to their factories, discussed the current situation, and started to organize en masse, moving as a block.

The strikes waged by the workers this week were both economic and political fused together. In some of the locations the workers did not list the regime’s fall among their demands, but they used the same slogans as those protesting in Tahrir and in many cases, at least those I managed to learn about and I’m sure there are others, the workers put forward a list of political demands in solidarity with the revolution.

These workers are not going home anytime soon. They started strikes because they couldn’t feed their families anymore. They have been emboldened by Mubarak’s overthrowal, and cannot go back to their children and tell them the army has promised to bring them food and their rights in I don’t know how many months. Many of the strikers have already started raising additional demands of establishing free trade unions away from the corrupt, state backed Egyptian Federation of Trade Unions.

Today, I’ve already started receiving news that thousands of Public Transport workers are staging protests in el-Gabal el-Ahmar. The temporary workers at Helwan Steel Mills are also protesting. The Railway technicians continue to bring trains to halt. Thousands of el-Hawamdiya Sugar Factory are protesting and oil workers will start a strike tomorrow over economic demands and also to impeach Minister Sameh Fahmy and halt gas exports to Israel. And more reports are coming from other industrial centers.

At this point, the Tahrir Square occupation is likely to be suspended. But we have to take Tahrir to the factories now. As the revolution proceeds an inevitable class polarization is to happen. We have to be vigilant. We shouldn’t stop here… We hold the keys to the liberation of the entire region, not just Egypt… Onwards with a permanent revolution that will empower the people of this country with direct democracy from below…

[More from Hossam El-Hamalawy at

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11 comments for "The Workers, Middle Class, Military Junta, and the Permanent Revolution"


RIght on. This article makes two important points that I don't see much (hardly at all) in the U.S. media, even the "progressive" media.

(1) The same military junta that has been ruling the country for almost 6 decades is now in charge of a "transition" to civilian rule. (Good luck with that!)

It's true, though, that the people forced the hand of the military, forced it to renounce the long-standing military leader, and in doing so have opened up space for further change.

(2) When the workers joined the revolution, the government caved. There's no getting around the power of the workers united.

Lenin said: revolutionary situations develop when the people are unwilling to continue and the ruling class is unable to continue with the way things are. The people were unwilling, and when the workers joined in, the ruling class was unable.

Docteur Lapin wrote on February 12, 2011 at 04:12 PM

The only good military coup that I can think of was when Portugal's army overthrew the dictatorship. They dismantled the empire and held democratic elections within a year. Pressure needs to be kept up to insure a democratic outcome in Egypt.

Jim Bains wrote on February 12, 2011 at 06:15 PM

Great piece. Without keeping up the pressure at factories post-Tahrir, the enduring interests of the military may steer this "transition" away from a democratic outcome.

Hesham Sallam wrote on February 13, 2011 at 12:20 AM

Bravo Hossam.

Dave Fryett wrote on February 13, 2011 at 02:14 AM

its about time that someone tells the truth about who is really in control in egypt. no where in the controlled u.s. and foreign press is mentioned that a military junta controls egypt; what are they afraid of; power to the people!

joe f. wrote on February 13, 2011 at 05:29 PM

in complete unity with this......solidarity and strength to Hossam El-Hamalawy and the Egyptian working class

Jef Redwein wrote on February 14, 2011 at 01:05 AM

The leading role of the working class is no dogma of a faith but a task to fulfil. As far as I see from abroad - I depend on the coverage of the media - the working class in Egyt is far away from fulfilling this task. In some industrial sites it is trying to take an advantage of the weakness of the ruling class in the moment. No fault, of course, but far away from fulfilling its historical mission.

Bernhard Dorfer wrote on February 14, 2011 at 03:10 AM

"We hold the keys to the liberation of the entire region, not just Egypt ..."

You, my friend, hold the keys to the liberation of more than just the region. One day soon people in the West will wake up to the fact that they live under a dictatorship far worse than Mubarak's. Worse because it masquerades as 'democracy' when it's nothing of the kind. The politicians are all in the pockets of of the corporations and the people are no more than willing slaves, seduced by a dream that the planet can't sustain. This dictatorship has already bankrupted the US. It will bankrupt the entire world and destroy what's left of the ecosphere. But only if the people of the world sit back and let it ...

Wendy Howard wrote on February 14, 2011 at 11:42 AM

Yes only the facde has been removed (and that is indeed cause enough for jubilisation) but the military regime remains in place. After all Mubarak was only the frontal ornament of a military regime.

However, the great thing is that the military regime has been enormously weakened. It is imperative that the people keep up intense pressure to subordinate the military to a genuine democratic people's government. No ways can the military resist if the people are determined - try to shoot at massed demonstrations and the army will split - even more.

Prof Kumar David wrote on February 15, 2011 at 06:56 AM

Can I please ask readers who are interested in this article to also visit the above webpage. Thanks.

Kumar David wrote on February 15, 2011 at 07:25 AM

Great piece Hossam. But please name "the middle class activists" who" have been urging Egyptians to suspend the protests and return to work, in the name of patriotism." You can see this so clearly in Wael Ghoneim's face book page "we are all Khalid Sa'id". Such political immaturity and idealistic nationalism. It reminds me of 19th century German students and the followers of the Romantic movement.

Ahmad Nazir Atassi wrote on February 15, 2011 at 04:47 PM

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