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Libya

المسألة الزراعية ومأساة العمالة المصرية الريفية في ليبيا

[صورة المرفقة لوثيقة زواج أحد شهداء داعش يظهر فيها مهنته أو عمله

في أغلب الأحيان تم توصيف شهداء مجزرة داعش بليبيا على أنهم "مصريون أقباط" وفي بعض الاحيان أضيفت كلمة "فقراء". ولم يكن لانتماء كافة الشهداء لريف جنوب مصر أي مدلول بخلاف مسألة الفقر التي هي بدون شك أكثر انتشاراً بريف جنوب مصر من سواها من المناطق. لكن غاب عن النقاش إلى حد بعيد علاقة المأساة بأزمة القطاع الزراعي المصري، أو ما يمكن ان نسميه بتوابع التحول النيوليبرالي للزراعة المصرية، والذي بدوره خلّف آلافاً من القوى المعطلة في الريف. وتشير دراسة عبد المولى اسماعيل إلى أن المتضررين من قانون المالك والمستأجر يصل عددهم إلى حوالى مليون مستأجر خسروا بشكل جزئي أو كلي موارد رزقهم وأن حوالى نصف مليون خسروا مورد رزقهم الأساسي جراء القانون. طرد الفلاحون من أراضيهم ...

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Beyond Authenticity: ISIS and the Islamic Legal Tradition

The Atlantic thinks ISIS is Islamic. President Obama and countless others disagree. As the debate rages on with no shortage of interlocutors, one must stop to ask, what is the utility of making such pronouncements? Is the simple binary of whether ISIS is Islamic or not an effective way to discuss and understand the various questions at stake concerning the Islamic tradition, its authenticity, continuity and change? In response to this basic question, Muslims globally have gone on the defensive, denying any relationship between the religion and the group. Whether it be the eighteen-page open letter issued by prominent Muslim clerics globally, the statement of the twelve ...

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Maghreb Media Roundup (January 30)

[Image of the Arch of Trajan in Timgad, Algeria. Image by zedamnabil/Flickr]

[This is a roundup of news articles and other materials circulating on the Maghreb and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of the Maghreb Page Editors or of Jadaliyya. You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each week's roundup to maghreb@jadaliyya.com by Thursday night of every week] Algeria Is a Late ‘Arab Spring’ Knocking on Algeria’s Doors from the Desert? Adam Al-Sabiri considers the implications of the vast protest movement against shale gas operation in southern Algeria. Corporate management: Need to draft charter on governance of public companies As Algeria looks to diversify its economy and ...

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Memorandum on Equal Citizenship Rights for Libyan Women in the Constitution

[The following is an English translation of a memorandum that was issued by a group of concerned Libyan citizens to the Constitutional Drafting Assembly on 20 August 2014 with respect to the right of Libyan women to pass on citizenship to their children. The introduction that precedes the memorandum was written by Hanan Ghosheh, one of the people involved in the drafting of the memorandum. The original Arabic memorandum is reproduced at the end.] In the three years following the February 17 Revolution of Libya, the status of women’s rights has endured severe setbacks including unprecedented violence and crimes against the female population. The fact that seventeen ...

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Maghreb Media Roundup (November 21)

[Image of art stenciled on a wall in a playground in Tripoli, Libya. Image by Tarek Siala/Flickr]

[This is a roundup of news articles and other materials circulating on the Maghreb and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of the Maghreb Page Editors or of Jadaliyya. You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each week's roundup to maghreb@jadaliyya.com by Thursday night of every week] Algeria L’instance de coordination de la CNLTD appelle à l’organisation d’une élection présidentielle anticipée One of Algeria’s main opposition movements met at the Mouvement de la société pour la paix (MSP) headquarters on Tuesday to call for another presidential election given the president’s health issues. Algerian ...

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New Texts Out Now: Andrea Khalil, Crowds and Politics in North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya

[Cover of Andrea Khalil,

Andrea Khalil, Crowds and Politics in North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. London: Routledge, 2014. Jadaliyya (J): What made you write this book?             Andrea Khalil (AK): In the fall of 2010, I was researching a book on the 5 October 1988 riots in Algeria. I was in France and Algeria from July-December 2010 looking for documents, archives, photos, testimonies, and literature about the riots. The events in Tunisia in the middle of December 2010 made it clear that there would be a contemporary context in which to study riots, and in Tunisia in particular. I then changed the topic and became focused ...

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Quick Thoughts: Ali Ahmida on the Situation in Libya

[Map of Libya. Image from GEOATLAS - GRAPHI-OGRE via Shutterstock.com]

[The recent upsurge in fighting in Libya has been the most intense since the overthrow of Mu‘ammar Qaddafi in 2011. In addition to pitting various militias against each other, General Khalifa Haftar has proclaimed his intention to seize the reins of power throughout the country. Jadaliyya asked Libya specialist Ali Ahmida to shed light on recent developments]: Jadaliyya (J): Who is General Khalifa Haftar? Ali Ahmida (AA): General Haftar has a controversial history. He is originally from the eastern city of Ijdabia. He graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Benghazi after Libya’s independence in 1951, and later joined the Unionist Free Officers Organization led by ...

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The Ottoman Scramble for Africa

[Image via Ottoman History Podcast]

During the nineteenth century, the place of the Ottoman Empire in the European state system became the subject of continual debate among the major players on the world political stage. Ottoman statesmen were acutely aware of the empire’s relatively weak position vis-à-vis its neighbors and sought to manage this situation while simultaneously expanding the role of state institutions in the provinces. We often see the Ottomans forced to accept unfavorable economic and political arrangements while playing other empires off each other in order to maintain autonomy. From this perspective, the Ottoman Empire sometimes appears as if partially colonized by its powerful ...

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ليبيا: دولة الميليشيات

[مصدر الصورة فليكر ]

  لم تكد تمضي ثلاثة أيام على سقوط طرابلس في أيدي «الثوار» يوم 20 آب العام 2011، حتى وقع أول الاشتباكات بين المجموعات المسلحة التي أبصرت النور خلال الأشهر الثمانية التي سبقت انهيار نظام معمّر القذافي. يومها، هوّن المتفائلون بتحقيق الديموقراطية في ليبيا من وطأة تلك الاشتباكات، فاعتبرها البعض ظاهرة موقتة يمكن السيطرة عليها فور انتقال ليبيا من دولة قائمة على «حكم الفرد» إلى دولة قائمة على «حكم القانون». لكن الطريقة البشعة التي قتل بها العقيد القذافي في 20 تشرين الأول العام 2011، والتي شاهدها العالم فور وقوعها عبر شاشات التلفزيون ومواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، كانت بالنسبة إلى كثيرين جرسَ انذارٍ لمستوى العنف الخطير الذي يضرب ليبيا، ومؤشراً خطيراً على انفلات أمني لا يمكن ...

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Maghreb Media Roundup (October 20)

[In the midst of political and economic instability, Eid al-Adha proved difficult for many in the Maghreb. Photo courtesy of Twitter user Ferdinand Reus.]

[This is a roundup of news articles and other materials circulating on the Maghreb and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of the Maghreb Page Editors or of Jadaliyya. You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each week's roundup to maghreb@jadaliyya.com by Thursday night of every week.]  Algeria La double occultation des événements du 17 octobre 1961. Ait Benali Boubekeur remembers the massacre of FLN supporters in France during the period of the Algerian struggle for independence on 17 October 1961. Ouargla : De Graves Accusations Contre La Police Hadjer Guenafa reports on allegations that the police in ...

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Snatch and Render from Libya

[Still image taken from footage from an RAF Tornado GR4, showing the aircraft using Brimstone Missiles to destroy a Main Battle Tank in Libya during Operation Ellamy in 2011. Image from Wikimedia Commons.]

In 2004, the British government brokered the transfer of militants of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) from their “undisclosed locations” in the War on Terror to the Qaddafi regime. “This was the least we could do for you and for Libya to demonstrate the remarkable relationship we have built over the years,” wrote Sir Mark Allen, head of Britain’s MI6 to Qaddafi’s aide Moussa Koussa on 18 March 2004. The specific matter here was the “safe arrival of Abu Abdallah Sadiq,” the nom de plume of Abdul Hakim Belhadj, former emir of LIFG. When Belhadj and his wife arrived in Libya through a MI6-CIA operation, Moussa Koussa chillingly greeted Belhadj, “I’ve been waiting ...

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Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Eighteenth Report

[The following report was issued by Bokra Youth Organization and H2O Team on 28 September 2013. This is the eighteenth in a year-long series of reports covering the actions of Libya's General National Council. This issue focuses on the period from 15 September to 30 September 2013. Click here to access the previous report.] Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Eighteenth Report Introduction: The General National Conference (GNC) held five sessions in which the GNC discussed the national security situation and listened to several reports submitted by the heads and members of GNC committees that deal with the security situation. These ...

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Minyan Village Mourns: A Photographic Essay

Between agony and happiness, the village of Al-Aour in the Egyptian governorate of Minya received the news that thirteen of its sons were among the twenty-one Egyptian Christians recently beheaded by the Islamic State (IS) organization in Libya. Women and children’s screams echoed through the village. On 3 January 2015 around 2 a.m. in the coastal Libyan city of Sirte, masked gunmen knocked on the door of a dormitory of Egyptian workers. "We came for the Christians. Stay away," they said, ...

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Quick Thoughts: Paul Sedra on the IS Massacre of Egyptian Copts in Libya

Among the most important points to make about these horrific murders relates to context. I would argue this event cannot and should not be placed within the context of domestic Egyptian politics or of Muslim-Christian relations in Egypt. Without question, Egypt has a persistent problem with sectarianism and violence against Egypt’s Coptic community. But these latest sectarian murders represent an effort by the Islamic State (IS) movement to advance its transnational agenda rather than an Egyptian one. ...

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مذكرة الى الهيئة الليبية الوطنية التأسيسية لصياغة الدستور عن المساواة في حقوق المواطنة للمرأة الليبية في الدستور

[صدر المذكرة التالية من قبل مجموعة من المواطنين الليبيين المعنيين لالهيئة الليبية الوطنية التأسيسية لصياغة الدستور في 20 آب 2014 فيما يتعلق بحق المرأة الليبية على نقل الجنسية لأبنائها.]  14 أغسطس 2014 إلى: الهيئة الليبية الوطنية التأسيسية لصياغة الدستور الموضوع: المساواة في حقوق المواطنة للمرأة الليبية في الدستور السادة أعضاء الهيئة بعد التحية نود تهنئتكم على انتخابكم للهيئة التأسيسية لصياغة مشروع الدستور في ليبيا وإلى الأمل والثقة التي ألهمت العديد من الموطنين في ليبيا إلى غاية ...

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From Raqqa to Derna: Exceptionalism in Expansionism

In early November, militants affiliated with the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria took full control of the Libyan city of Derna, festooning government buildings with the familiar flag bearing the shahada and celebrating their victory over their opponents within the city. A coastal settlement of around 100,000, less than two hundred miles from the eastern city of Benghazi and hours from Tobruk, where the internationally-recognized House of Representative rules from, the loss of Derna aroused fears within ...

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Civil Society Call for the Protection of Libya's Democratic Transition

[The following statement was issued by members of Libya's civil society.]  Libya’s transition since 2011 has been a difficult path to follow; riddled with instability and violence. Libyans and the international community alike did not anticipate much of what has come to pass, rendering the country in constant flux and continual deterioration putting democracy, freedom, human rights at stake.  Nearly four years since the uprising, Libya’s trajectory may still be rectified. If not motivated by ...

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O.I.L. Media Roundup (5 August)

[This is a roundup of news articles and other materials circulating on Occupation, Intervention and Law and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of the O.I.L. Page Editors or of Jadaliyya. You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each biweekly roundup to OIL@jadaliyya.com by Monday night of every other week.] Gaza Hamas' Chances, Nathan Thrall Hamas's ongoing combat is indicative of a strategic decision making process, not maniacal hatred of Israel, ...

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Human Rights Roadmap for a New Libya

[The following report was published by Human Rights Watch on 3 February 2014] Human Rights Roadmap for a New Libya Introduction After four decades of authoritarian rule, Libya faces the challenge of reforming outdated and repressive legislation and writing new laws that guarantee the full panoply of citizens’ rights. The enduring legacy of Muammar Gaddafi’s rule includes laws that have curtailed the freedoms of generations of Libyans. Since the 2011 revolution in Libya, with some exceptions such as ...

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Libya’s Revolution 'Will Not Stop Until We Have Freedom'

After forty-two years of political oppression in Libya, it was hoped that the apparatus of Gaddafi’s regime would be dismantled after he was swept from power. Vestiges of the despot’s suffocating grip on free speech still remain, and are still being used to suppress political expression. Jamal al-Hajji, a writer and commentator from Tripoli, faces jail and a large fine after comments he made in a television interview in February 2013 sparked a defamation case by government figures. During an ...

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Les villes petites et moyennes dans les revoltes arabes: un etat des lieux

Les villes petites et moyennes dans les révoltes arabes: un état des lieux. Compte rendu de: Karine Benafla (dir.), Dossier « Villes arabes: conflits et protestations », Confluences Méditerranée, 85 (2013), 9-164. Une des dimensions singulières des révoltes arabes est leur territorialité, qui a d'emblée constitué une clé de leur interprétation. Or, cette territorialité est plurielle et se décline en plusieurs moments. Aux révoltes des petites et moyennes villes tunisiennes (Sidi Bouzid, ...

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Maghreb Media Roundup (October 14)

[This is a roundup of news articles and other materials circulating on the Maghreb and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of the Maghreb Page Editors or of Jadaliyya. You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each week's roundup to maghreb@jadaliyya.com by Thursday night of every week.]  Algeria Algeria: Crackdown on Independent Trade Unions Human Rights Watch condemns Algerian authorities’ efforts to limit the formation and operation of ...

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Is Algeria an Anti-Imperialist State?

In the last two years, several articles and analyses have attempted to decrypt Algeria’s ambiguous position toward Western imperialist interventions in Libya and Mali. In contrast to its assertive and resolute diplomacy of the 1960s and 1970s, the Algerian regime confused more than one observer, as it was not easy to tell whether it supported or opposed these recent wars. On the one hand, reductionist views failed to analyze the situation objectively and resorted to the easy explanation: that Algeria is ...

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O.I.L. Media Roundup (25 September)

 [This is a roundup of news articles and other materials circulating on Occupation, Intervention, and Law and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of the O.I.L. Page Editors or of Jadaliyya. You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each biweekly roundup to OIL@jadaliyya.com by Monday night of every other week.] News  Iran-US Dialogue Iran: Nasrin Sotoudeh Among Freed Political Prisoners, BBC News Iran has reportedly freed eleven political ...

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