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Libya

Jadaliyya's Occupation, Intervention, and Law Page Resonates

[Smoke rises after an Israel air strike in Gaza Strip December 28, 2008. Image by Amir Farshad Ebrahimi.]

Since launching in July 2010, the Occupation, Intervention, and Law (O.I.L) page has made rich contributions to the field of studies examining the Middle East, armed conflict, law, and human rights. O.I.L has sought to explore the relationship between, and the debates within, the fields of armed conflict, politics, and international law. These debates include developments in international law; the implications of intervention; the legitimacy, or lack thereof, of resistance; the political economy of conflict; war profiteering; and the humanitarian dimension of war and peace, associated movements, and related forces. In less than three years, we have published 497 ...

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Libya: Which Fate for Gaddafi’s Henchmen?

[Image of graffiti depicting a blood-spattered Gaddafi. Image by Lord Jim/Flickr.]

On 24 March 2013, about 200 former rebel fighters in Libya besieged the prime minister's office, demanding that he resign in accordance with a political isolation law banning members of the former regime from political life. Ali Zeidan, the current prime minister of Libya, served as a diplomat under Gaddafi. The draft political isolation law being debated applies to anybody who held an official position during the final two decades of Gaddafi’s rule, which includes many who have played a prominent post-revolutionary role in Libya. However, there are calls for this draft law to be expanded to include anybody who held an official post over the entire period of Gaddafi’s ...

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Trial by Error: Justice in Post-Qadhafi Libya

[ICG logo. Image from crisisgroup.org]

[The following report was issued by International Crisis Group on 17 April 2013.]  Trial by Error: Justice in Post-Qadhafi Libya Executive Summary  There are many necessary cures to Libya’s pervasive insecurity, but few more urgent than repairing its judicial system. Qadhafi-era victims, distrusting an apparatus they view as a relic, take matters in their hands; some armed groups, sceptical of the state’s ability to carry out justice, arbitrarily detain, torture or assassinate presumed Qadhafi loyalists; others, taking advantage of disorder, do violence for political or criminal aims. All this triggers more grievances, further undermining confidence in the ...

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Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Fourth Report

[Eye on the GNC logo. Image from ignc.net.ly]

[The following report was issued by Bokra Youth Organization and H2O Team on 9 March 2013. This is the fourth in a year-long series of reports covering the actions of Libya's General National Council. This issue focuses on the period from 1 February to 15 February 2013. Click here to access the previous report.] Eye on the General National Congress: Fourth Report Introduction The General National Conference (GNC) held five sessions during this period, the final one being 13 February 2013. These sessions were not broadcast on television due to strikes in the meeting hall by handicapped revolutionaries demanding reparations and healthcare benefits ...

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Prison Sketches

[Omar Al-Kikli. Image from almanoos.com]

Prison Sketches [Translated from the Arabic by Sebastian Anstis]  In the beginning was the Word (forbidden) After we had first tasted the terror of their welcome, they stood us in line against the wall. One of them said severely, pointing to the nearest corner: “Those who who’ve got books or magazines or newspapers or anything with writing on it, stack it here.”  Mercy killing I wrote many stories during my prison years. The first three months in the regular Interior Ministry prison were referred to as "the interrogation." After this, friends and family could come for long, unsupervised visits. In this way books, magazines, notebooks and pens ...

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Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: First Report

[Eye on the GNC logo. Image from ignc.net.ly]

[The following report was issued by Bokra Youth Organization and H2O Team on 19 January 2013.  This is the first in a year-long series of reports covering the actions of Libya's General National Council.]  Eye on the GNC: The First Report This project is the result of intensive communication between two organizations, H2O and Bokra, mobilizing efforts to collect information and data to prepare accurate reports on the performance of Libya's General National Congress (GNC). The performance of the GNC will be followed by tracking what is written about it in local and international newspapers, as well as what is broadcasted about it on ...

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Habits of French Colonialism

[Map of West Africa. Image from News Click.]

“In other days France was the name of a country. We should take care that in 1961 it does not become the name of a nervous disease.” -- Jean Paul Sartre, preface to Frantz Fanon’s Wretched of the Earth.  In an early French film on the colonies, Enfants annamites ramassant des sépèques devant la Pagode des dames (Lumière Brothers, 1897), two French women smile condescendingly as they scatter coins to a group of Vietnamese children, who scramble to gather them. Little has changed in the French attitude to its former colonies in more than a century. The “Socialist” president François Hollande’s deceitful claim that France is in Mali to protect the ...

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Focus sur le Mali, deuxième partie: Une guerre qui menace toute la région

[Des combattants islamistes armés traversent à vive allure la frontière entre la Mauritanie et le Mali le 21 mai. Image de Jemal Oumar/Flickr.]

[Cet article est le deuxième d'une série de trois, avec des perspectives différentes sur les développements au Mali. Le premier article - « Mali in Focus, Part One: The Jihadist Offensive Revisited » ] « …Ce conflit est légitime et vital pour la sécurité des Français. Nous ne pouvons pas espérer conserver nos modes de vie et notre prospérité si nous n'allons pas à l'extérieur du territoire national participer à la stabilisation et au règlement des crises, à l'éradication des menaces qui finiraient immanquablement par venir nous menacer à l'intérieur du territoire national. » Ces mots ont été prononcés par le général de division ...

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The UN at ASIL: R2P and the Arab Uprisings

[Image of a UN Peacekeeping Forces Helmet. Image by Daniel Košinár. From Wikimedia Commons.]

The Under-Secretary for Legal Affairs and United Nations Legal Counsel, Patricia O Brien, recently addressed the American Society of International Law Midyear Meeting at the University of Georgia School of Law. In her representative capacity, O’Brien dedicated her luncheon remarks to a discussion about the still-developing concept of responsibility to protect. (She contributed the full remarks as an IntLawGrrls post.) Also known by its shorthand abbreviation, R2P, the doctrine of responsibility to protect suggests that sovereignty is not a privilege that shields states from accountability; rather, in addition to international privileges, sovereignty entails ...

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La Libye un an après

[El Saharara oil field, in Libya, operated by Repsol YPF. Image from Wikimedia Commons.]

Alors que la scène politique libyenne commence difficilement à se stabiliser (élections au Congrès National le 7 juillet, passation des pouvoirs avec le Conseil National de Transition le 9 août, élection du Premier ministre Mustafa Abou Shagour le 12 septembre puis son renvoi par le Congrès le 7 octobre), les nouvelles autorités se retrouvent toujours confrontées à des défis de gouvernance considérables. Outre la nécessité de répondre aux besoins humanitaires de la population et de localiser les actifs financiers libyens à l’étranger, les autorités libyennes doivent relever les défis posés par les crises sociales et identitaires héritées des années Kadhafi. Faisant ...

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The Struggle for Security in Eastern Libya

[Clashes in Al-Badya, Libya, in February 2011. Image by ليبي_صح via Wikimedia Commons.]

[The following report was issued by the Carnegie Endowment in September 2012.]  The Struggle for Security in Eastern Libya Summary  Despite successful parliamentary elections in early July, localized clashes over identity, power, and resources persist in Libya, straining the capacity of the weak government, deterring foreign investment, and possibly stunting the emergence of democratic institutions. The most pressing of these conflicts — growing insecurity in Libya’s eastern region of Barqa, where Benghazi is located — is fueled by longstanding neglect, Salafi militancy, and fighting between ethnic Tabu and Arab tribes. Lacking an ...

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هل كان الربيع العربي جديراً بذلك كله؟: غطرسة السلطة التي تذهب بالعقل

[لقطة لشاشة السي إن إن]

إنها البداية فحسب كنا على وشك ركوب الطائرة من واشنطن إلى إسطنبول، عندما ظهرت هذه الصورة على الشاشة عند البوابة: عنوان على قناة سي إن إن: "هل كان الربيع العربي جديرا بذلك العناء كله ؟" اعتاد المرء، عموماً، أن يرى ويسمع تعليقات "خاصة" حول المنطقة في وسائل الإعلام الرئيسية. ولكن، بين الفينة والأخرى، يطل برأسه علينا أمر شديد الإثارة، يبعث فينا الدهشة. ولعل هذا العنوان واحد من تلك التقارير، التي باتت تعبّر عن المزاج الغالب لما تقدمه ليس فقط الـ سي إن إن، ولكن معظم القنوات الرئيسية الأخرى، بعد ردود الفعل العنيفة على الفيلم المسئ لنبي الإسلام. لا شك أن الفيلم كان مهيناً وبائساً، وأن ردود الأفعال العنيفة والقتل الذي نتج عنها كانت مثيرة للغضب وتبعث على ...

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Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Seventh Report

[The following report was issued by Bokra Youth Organization and H2O Team on 8 May 2013. This is the seventh in a year-long series of reports covering the actions of Libya's General National Council. This issue focuses on the period from 15 March to 1 April 2013. Click here to access the previous report.] Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Seventh Report Introduction The General National Congress held five meetings in this period beginning Sunday March 17, after a weeklong suspension ...

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Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Sixth Report

[The following report was issued by Bokra Youth Organization and H2O Team on 22 April 2013. This is the sixth in a year-long series of reports covering the actions of Libya's General National Council. This issue focuses on the period from 1 March to 15 March 2013. Click here to access the previous report.] Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Sixth Report Introduction  The General National Congress held two sessions in this period and primarily discussed the political isolation law ...

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Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Fifth Report

[The following report was issued by Bokra Youth Organization and H2O Team on 9 March 2013. This is the fifth in a year-long series of reports covering the actions of Libya's General National Council. This issue focuses on the period from 15 February to 1 March 2013. Click here to access the previous report.] Eye on the General National Congress: Fifth Report Introduction These sessions preceded the second anniversary of the February 17 Libyan Revolution. The level of General National ...

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Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Third Report

[The following report was issued by Bokra Youth Organization and H2O Team on 28 February 2013. This is the third in a year-long series of reports covering the actions of Libya's General National Council. This issue focuses on the period from 15 January to 1 February 2013. Click here to access the previous report.] Eye on the General National Congress: The Third Report Introduction On Tuesday evening, 15 January 2013, Mr. Omar Hemedan, the official spokesperson for the General National Congress ...

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Eye on the Libyan General National Congress: Second Report

[The following report was issued by Bokra Youth Organization and H2O Team on 8 February 2013.  This is the second in a year-long series of reports covering the actions of Libya's General National Council. This issue focuses on the period from 20 December 2012 to 15 January 2013. Click here to access the previous report.]  Eye on the General National Congress: The Second Report Introduction The General National Congress (GNC) held the following sessions and hearings: its 49th ...

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Mali in Focus, Part Three: A Dangerous Show of Force from a Former Colonial Power

[This article is the final of a three-part series featuring different perspectives on the recent developments in Mali. Previously published: "Mali in Focus, Part One: The Jihadist Offensive Revisited" and "Mali in Focus, Part Two: A War That Threatens the Entire Region"] Broad political consensus in the domestic political sphere, support from the international community, and the urgency of the situation due to the rapid advance of Islamist militias—together, at first glance, these ...

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Focus sur le Mali, troisième partie: Une périlleuse démonstration de force de l'ancienne puissance coloniale

[Cet article est le troisième d'une série de trois, avec des perspectives différentes sur les développements au Mali. Les articles précédents - « Mali in Focus, Part One: The Jihadist Offensive Revisited » et « Focus sur le Mali, deuxième partie: Une guerre qui menace toute la région » ] Large consensus politique sur la scène politique intérieure, soutien de la communauté internationale, urgence de la situation face à l'avancée rapide des milices ...

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Libya's First Video Art Exhibit (Tripoli, 6-7 November 2012)

First Glance: Video Art Exhibit 6 & 7 November 2012 Tripoli, Libya  The Arete Foundation for Arts and Culture is to hold an exhibition of video art in Tripoli’s Old City on 6-7 November. First Glance is the first exhibition of video art in the country. Nine screens in the Old City Works will show works by international artists from Argentina, Australia, Egypt, France, India, Japan, Lebanon, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Palestine, Syria, the UK, the US, and ...

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Syracuse Event -- NATO Intervention and the People of Libya: Lessons Learnt (19 October 2012)

NATO Intervention and the People of Libya: Lessons Learnt  9 October 2012, 9:00 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.  Maxwell School, Syracuse University Eggers Hall Global Collaboratory, Room 060         Included Speakers: Adonia Ayebare, International Peace Institute Ali Mazrui, Institute of Global Cultural Studoes, Binghamton University Doc Mashabane, Permanent Mission of South Africa to the United Nations Emira Woods, Institute for Policy Studies ...

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New Texts Out Now: Ali Abdullatif Ahmida, Libya, Social Origins of Dictatorship, and the Challenge for Democracy

Ali Abdullatif Ahmida, "Libya, Social Origins of Dictatorship, and the Challenge for Democracy." North African Revolutions, special issue of The Journal of the Middle East and Africa 3.1 (2012) Jadaliyya (J): What made you write this article? Ali Ahmida (AA): This article was inspired by the democratic revolutionary uprising in the Arab World, especially Libya, the least known country. Also, I wanted to go beyond the orientalist and the colonial filtering and categories by bringing in the ...

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غازي القبلاوي عن مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي والثورة الليبية

جدلية: ما هي أكثر الخواص إمتاعاً في خدمة تويتر وإرسال التغريدات؟ غازي القبلاوي: إنها حرية كتابة أفكارك دونما محددات كثيرة، نحوية كانت أو لغوية، إضافة إلى الطبيعة المختصرة لتويتر والتي تجعل من المهم للشخص أن يصوغ أفكاره بأسلوب غاية في الاختصار، والتركيز، والتثقيف. الخاصية الأخرى هي أن أغلب الحواجز الاجتماعية، والثقافية، والاجتماعية-الاقتصادية تختفي نسبيا على صفحات التويتر، حيث يمكن للناس من مختلف الخلفيات والثقافات أن يتواصلوا مع بعضهم بغض النظر عن المركز أو المكانة الاجتماعية. جدلية: ما هي بعض المحددات ...

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Divided We Stand: Libya's Enduring Conflicts

[The following report was issued by International Crisis Group on 14 September 2012.]  Divided We Stand: Libya's Enduring Conflicts  Executive Summary  The 11 September killing of the U.S. ambassador and three of his colleagues is a stark reminder of Libya’s security challenges. It also should serve as a wake-up call. There is, of course, more than one way to look at the country today: as one of the more encouraging Arab uprisings, recovering faster than expected; or as a country of ...

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