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Protests-Revolts

أسباب الثورة في البحرين: حوار مع مريم الخواجة

[ الناشطة مريم الخواجة. صورة من حسابها على تويتر]

  نُشرت المقابلة بالأصل في كانون الأول\ديسمبر ٢٠١٢، قبل شهر من تمكن مريم الخواجة من الدخول إلى البحرين في المرة الأخيرة. حاولت أن تعود إلى البحرين فيما بعد في آب\أغسطس ٢٠١٣، لكنها مُنعت من الصعود إلى الطائرة بسبب أمر حكومي من البحرين. مؤخراً، في ٣٠ آب\أغسطس ٢٠١٤ قامت مريم بمحاولة أخرى للدخول إلى البحرين لزيارة والدها المريض، عبد الهادي الخواجة، المضرب عن الطعام. لدى وصولها، صادرت السلطات البحرينية جواز سفرها، وزعمت أنها ليست مواطنة بحرينية وسجنتها. مذاك، سُجنت مريم الخواجة في سجن بلدة عيسى للنساء.  وُجِّهتْ إليها ثلاث تهم: شتم الملك، المشاركة في حملة مركز البحرين لحقوق الإنسان”حملة مطلوب للعدالة ”، والاعتداء على ضابط شرطة (رغم حقيقة أن ضباط الشرطة تعاملوا معها ...

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New Texts Out Now: Linda Herrera, Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet

[Cover of Linda Herrera,

Linda Herrera, Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet. London and New York: Verso, 2014. Jadaliyya (J): What made you write this book? Linda Herrera (LH): In the months prior to the Arab uprisings, I had been conducing research on Egypt’s “wired generation”—their social media habits, ways of doing politics, and networks. When it became known that Egypt’s popular mobilization on 25 January 2011 was launched from a Facebook page, I literally found myself pulled by the astonishing force of events, as if lifted by a political tornado. I did not know where this force would take me—indeed I could not have imagined—but I knew ...

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The Built-In Obsolescence of the Facebook Leader

[Composite image of

In times like these, when the hopes of the 2011 Egyptian revolution seem to have faded away, it is imperative to understand what went wrong, and in particular what went wrong in the new forms of digitally supported organizations that were displayed in the course revolution and that became a source of inspiration for other activists around the world. The enthusiastic use of social networking sites among Egyptian activists has been widely celebrated, and to a great extent rightly so, given the importance Facebook political pages and Twitter channels have played as means of information and mobilization. However the dependence on social media as technical and organizational ...

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The BBC and User-Generated Content: How Syrian Grassroots Information Shaped Newsroom Roles

[Screenshot from BBC coverage featuring user-generated content]

It’s probably the first big story I can remember where UGC has become a real factor in reporting, I think before that the UGC Hub was a department which was a bit unclear how you would best use them...But with Syria we were so exposed out there with not many people we had to use something. And they would become integral to reporting basically because they were only the source of getting some idea of what was happening.[1] It’s just after two o'clock on the morning of 21 August 2013 and in BBC Broadcasting House in London, journalists at the User Generated Content (UGC) Hub are pouring over YouTube footage. Over the next few hours, a team of BBC producers will sift ...

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Special Address: Digital Media and the Freedom Struggle

[Cartoon by Omar El-Momani. Courtesy of 7iber (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)]

  [Jillian York giving the Special Address at the Westminster Conference] The Special Address tackled the most salient conditions in the region that precipitated the revolutions and the role the new media actors played in galvanizing support for these movements. While states have become increasingly adept at undermining freedom of expression, the press, and the Internet, inventive ways continue to be developed to circumvent the tightening spaces of dissent.  

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The Meme-ing of Revolution: Creativity, Folklore, and the Dislocation of Power in Egypt

[Mubarak's face superimposed on Jacques-Louis David's Napoleon Crossing the Alps. Viral image from Egypt's Sarcasm Society Facebook page].

It was 20 January 2011, just five days before a major protest called for by many youth and opposition groups in Egypt, when Ali came across a hilarious image on Facebook. One of his friends had shared a photoshopped painting depicting Mubarak atop a majestic stallion as if marching into battle. The then president’s face sported the same cheeky imbecilic smile for which he had come to be known and ridiculed privately. Ali recalls laughing out loud at the absurdity of the image, especially since the original painting, which had been edited to include Mubarak, was none other than Jacques-Louis David’s early nineteenth century masterpiece Napoleon Crossing the Alps. ...

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Online and Offline Maneuverings in Syria's Counter-Revolution

[Logo of Syrian Electronic Army. Image from the group's Facebook Page]

The revolutionary advance [is] made headway not by its immediate tragic-comic achievements, but on the contrary by the creation of a powerful, united counter-revolution, by the creation of an opponent, by the fighting of which the party of revolt first ripened into a real revolutionary party. —Karl Marx In the past three years masses of Syrians have engaged in undermining the regime’s legitimacy, they have done this from physical places—squares, churches, mosques, campuses—and virtual spaces—the countless online agora’s facilitated by the Internet. A key issue raised by this paper is what happens when these spaces are no longer the "unique" let alone ...

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Arabian Peninsula Media Roundup (September 2)

[Image from Bahrain Center for Human Rights.]

[This is a roundup of news articles and other materials circulating on the Arabian Peninsula and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of the Arabian Peninsula Page Editors or of Jadaliyya. You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each week's roundup to ap@jadaliyya.com by Monday night of every week.]  Regional and International Relations You Can't Understand ISIS If You Don't Know the History of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia Alastair Crooke argues that the rise of the Islamic State in Iraq and Greater Syria needs to be understood in light of Wahhabi ideology. To really combat terror, end support for Saudi Arabia Owen ...

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An Open Letter

[Photo from Mada Masr]

At 4 p.m. today, I celebrated with my colleagues my last meal in prison.  I have decided—when I saw my father fighting against death locked in a body that was no longer subject to his will—to start an open hunger strike until I achieve my freedom. The well-being of my body is of no value while it remains subject to an unjust power in an open-ended imprisonment not controlled by the law or any concept of justice. I've had the thought before, but I put it aside. I did not want to place yet another burden on my family — we all know that the Ministry of the Interior does not make life easy for hunger strikers. But now I've realized that my family's hardship ...

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The Terror Metanarrative and the Rabaa Massacre

[Image of the violent dispersal of Rabaa al-Adawiya taken on 14 August 2013. Image by Amsg07/Wikimedia Commons.]

Just after dawn prayers on the morning of 14 August 2013, Egyptian security forces raided a large sit-in based at Cairo’s Rabaa al-Adawiyya Square and another at al-Nahda Square. Six weeks earlier, military leader and Minister of Defense Abdel Fattah al-Sisi staged a coup to remove Egypt’s first democratically elected president, the Muslim Brotherhood’s Mohamed Morsi, from office. In response, hundreds of thousands of Egyptians across the country congregated in public spaces to protest the coup and the perceived reversal of the revolutionary moment that began in early 2011 with the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak’s three-decade long authoritarian rule. As they opened fire on ...

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Bogazici Soma Dayanismasi Soma Gozlem Degerlendirmeleri

[Image via bogazicisomaya.blogspot.com.tr]

Boğaziçi Soma Dayanışması Soma Gözlem Değerlendirmeleri [Soma'da gerçekleşen facianın ardından Boğaziçi Üniversitesi akademisyen, öğrenci ve emekçileri tarafından kurulan Boğaziçi Soma Dayanışması Temmuz ayında ilçeye tekrardan bir ziyaret gerçekleştirdi. Soma'daki faciaya yol veren çalışma koşulları, sendika, sermaye, kadınların durumu, devlet/siyaset bağlantıları, ilçenin tarıma dair sorunları gibi başlıkları ele alacağımız gözlem ve değerlendirmeleri kamuoyu ile paylaşıyoruz.  İlk değerlendirme Nur Çırakman'ın Soma'daki taşeron sistemi üzerine tartışması. Mustafa Kaba arkadaşımızın değerlendirmesi ise Soma civarındaki köylerde tarımsal alandaki sorunlara ...

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New Texts Out Now: Muriam Haleh Davis, The Afterlives of the Algerian Revolution

[Cover of

Muriam Haleh Davis, editor, The Afterlives of the Algerian Revolution. Special Issue of JadMag (June 2014). Jadaliyya (J): What made you create this pedagogical publication? Muriam Haleh Davis (MHD): In November 2013, Samuel Everett and Malika Rahal had organized a panel for the Middle Eastern Studies Association (MESA) annual conference in New Orleans. First, all of the papers were given by a group of colleagues who I had met in Algiers during an intensive Algerian Arabic class, and whose work I had long admired. Learning Arabic (especially dialect) is still a rarity among scholars who work on Algeria. This is largely because scholars working ...

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Behind the Bahraini Revolution: An Interview with Maryam Al-Khawaja

[This interview was originally published in December 2012, a month before Maryam Al-Khawaja was last able to enter Bahrain. She attempted to go back to Bahrain later in August 2013, but was prevented from boarding her flight due to a government order from Bahrain. Recently, on 30 August 2014, Maryam made another attempt to enter Bahrain to visit her ailing father, Abdulhadi Al-Khawaja, who is on hunger strike. Upon her arrival, Bahraini authorities seized her passport, claimed she was not a Bahraini ...

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Roundtable Introduction: New Media, New Politics? Revolutions in Theory and Practice

In April of 2013, the Arab Media Center at the University of Westminster's CAMRI hosted its annual Arab media studies conference under the title of “New Media, New Politics?” At a critical juncture in the progress of the region’s uprisings, the common denominator at the event was (the need for) a prevailing dialectical understanding of the Arab revolutions, namely as a process demonstrating important, and often intractable, contradictions. As some forms of knowledge production are challenged by this ...

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Activism on the Move: Mediating Protest Space in Egypt with Mobile Technology

The 2011 revolutionary uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa abruptly captured global attention as the world was drawn breathlessly into the tumult with a profusion of media content, from Tweets to amateur video footage. Amidst the media blitz, analyses yielded two conflated and reactionary narratives of events. One contended that the popular protests of the so-called “Arab Spring” were wholly unexpected, a shocking diversion from the familiar politics of the Middle East in a seeming ...

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Keynote Address: Some Reflections on the Role of Media in Egypt’s January 25th Revolution

  [Walter Armbrust delivering the Keynote Address at the Westminster Conference] This lecture delves into the situational and historic dynamics that undergirded the media practices surrounding the January 25 revolution in Egypt. The notion of social revolution is unpacked to evaluate its application to the Egyptian revolutionary context. By looking at the cultural production of revolution–from rap songs against Mubarak to online memes against the Morsi government–the social mobilization is seen as ...

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New Media, New Politics? Theoretical Interventions and International Invocations

As part of the Jadaliyya Roundtable on New Media and New Politics, we offer three audio presentations from the April 2013 Westminster conference that address matters of mediation from theoretical and international perspectives. The topics presented here problematize analyses of the Arab revolutionary action and mediation by looking at these through the prism of "liberation technology," as synerigistic with South American Occupy movements, and as refractions of Marxist theorizations of digital ...

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Palestinianness on Facebook: Portrayals, Profiles, and Encoding the Self

I would like to think that we are not just the people seen or looked at in photographs: we are also looking at our observers….we too are scrutinizing, assessing, judging. We are more than someone’s object. We do more than stand passively in front of whoever…has wanted to look at us. -- Edward Said, After the Last Sky  Over the course of several decades in the Palestinian history, Palestinians have been the subject of thousands if not millions of photos, frequently taken by ...

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Egypt Monthly Edition on Jadaliyya (August 2014)

[This is a monthly archive of pieces written by Jadaliyya contributors and editors on Egypt. It also includes material published on other platforms that editors deemed pertinent to post as they provide diverse depictions of Egypt-related topics. The pieces reflect the level of critical analysis and diversity that Jadaliyya strives for, but the views are solely the ones of their authors. If you are interested in contributing to Jadaliyya, send us your post with your bio and a release form to ...

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Anthropologists In Defense of Intellectual and Academic Freedom at U. Illinois

Dear Chancellor Wise,  We write as anthropologists to regretfully inform you that we will refuse to speak as guest lecturers or participants in public events at the University of Illinois Urbana Champaign until you reverse your decision to prevent Professor Steven Salaita’s appointment to the Department of American Indian Studies at the UIUC. We find your decision to block Professor Salaita’s appointment disturbing for a number of reasons. Like many colleagues in various academic and professional ...

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One Year after Raba'a: An Interview with Adam Sabra and Mona El Ghobashy

Egypt has been the subject of media attention for its role as a mediator between Hamas and Israel during negotiations to end the military assault on Gaza. By contrast, Egypt's own very serious political strife has been largely neglected by the international media. Last week marked the one-year anniversary of the Raba'a massacre of 14 August 2014, during which at least 817 supporters of ousted Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi were killed by security forces. According to the Associated Press, at least ten ...

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Open Letter Gaza – Dutch Academic and Affiliates

 August 2014 We, Professors, teachers and staff of Dutch Universities, reply to the call of our academic colleagues in Gaza and condemn in the strongest terms the excessive and brutal violence of ‘operation protective edge’ and Israel’s structural oppression of the population in Gaza. Since the beginning of Israel’s military operation, 1814 people were killed of which at least 1312 were civilians, 214 women and 408 children. 8265 people are wounded, 457.000 internally displaced and the entire 1.8 ...

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تفنيد خمس نقاط إسرائيلية مثيرة للجدل حول غزة

تزعم إسرائيل أنها تقوم بممارسة حق الدفاع عن النفس فقط، وأن غزة لم تعد محتلة من قبلها. إليكم ما تحتاجون إلى معرفته حول هذه النقاط المثيرة للجدل وما هو أكثر من ذلك. قتلتْ إسرائيل ٨٠٠ فلسطيني تقريباً في الأيام الواحدة والعشرين الماضية في قطاع غزة وحده، وما يزال عدوانها متواصلاً. وقدّرتْ الأمم المتحدة أن أكثر من ٧٤٪ من الذين قُتلوا مدنيون. وهذا ما يجب توقعه من عدد سكان يبلغ ١،٨ مليون نسمة، فيما يبلغ عدد أعضاء حماس ١٥،٠٠٠ تقريباً. لا تنكر إسرائيل أنها قتلت أولئك الفلسطينيين مستخدمة تكنولوجيا جوية حديثة ...

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Video: Life in Gaza Explained

Gaza has been described as the world's largest open air prison. Israel's blockade of the Gaza Strip has had catastrophic results for average Palestinians living there. AJ+'s Dena Takruri looks at the unforgiving realities they face everyday.

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